Carbon capture is important because it can help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming and climate change.
There are several ways to capture carbon, including:
- Pre-combustion capture: Carbon is captured before fuel is burned, for example in a gasification plant.
- Post-combustion capture: Carbon is captured after fuel is burned, for example in a power plant.
- Oxy-fuel combustion: Oxygen is used instead of air to burn the fuel, resulting in a flue gas that is mainly composed of water vapor and CO2. The CO2 can then be easily separated and captured.
- Carbon capture and storage (CCS): Carbon is captured from power plants or industrial processes and then stored in underground reservoirs, such as depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers.
By capturing and storing carbon, it is possible to reduce the amount of CO2 that is released into the atmosphere and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Carbon capture can also help reduce air pollution, as burning fossil fuels releases other harmful pollutants into the air.