What is carbon capture and how does it work?

Carbon capture is a process that captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from the emissions of power plants, industrial facilities, and other sources. The captured CO2 can then be stored in underground geological formations, used in various industrial processes, or converted into other products such as fuels or chemicals.

There are several different technologies that can be used for carbon capture, including:

  1. Pre-combustion carbon capture: In this process, fossil fuels are burned in a special unit that separates the CO2 from the other emissions before the fuel is burned.
  2. Post-combustion carbon capture: This process captures CO2 from the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. The CO2 is separated from the other gases using chemicals or physical processes.
  3. Oxy-fuel combustion: In this process, the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, which produces a flue gas that is mostly composed of CO2. The CO2 can then be separated and captured.
  4. Carbon capture and utilization (CCU): CCU involves capturing CO2 from power plants or other sources and using it as a feedstock for the production of chemicals, fuels, or other products.
  5. Carbon capture and storage (CCS): CCS involves capturing CO2 from power plants or other sources and storing it underground in geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers.

Overall, carbon capture is a promising technology for reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating climate change. However, it is currently expensive and energy-intensive, and more research and development is needed to make it more cost-effective and widely deployed.

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